The structural properties of ice accretions formed on aircraft surfaces are studied. The overall objectives are to measure basic structural properties of impact ices and to develop finite element analytical procedures for use in the design of all deicing systems. The Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was used to produce simulated natural ice accretion over a wide range of icing conditions. Two different test apparatus were used to measure each of the three basic mechanical properties: tensile, shear, and peeling. Data was obtained on both adhesive shear strength of impact ices and peeling forces for various icing conditions. The influences of various icing parameters such as tunnel air temperature and velocity, icing cloud drop size, material substrate, surface temperature at ice/material interface, and ice thickness were studied. A finite element analysis of the shear test apparatus was developed in order to gain more insight in the evaluation of the test data. A comparison with other investigators was made. The result shows that the adhesive shear strength of impact ice typically varies between 40 and 50 psi, with peak strength reaching 120 psi and is not dependent on the kind of substrate used, the thickness of accreted ice, and tunnel temperature below 4 C.